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Tendinitis and tendon ruptures.

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As you repeat sprints and jumps, you experience pain just below the calf or at the front of the knee. This is perhaps tendinitis! You're not the only, the greatest footballers are sometimes victims ...
Tendon, what is it?
The tendon is the cord connecting the muscle to the bone. It consists of a multitude of small fiber exactly like a string is formed by several filaments. The tendon is responsible for transmitting the force of the muscle to the joint and cause movement. The calf muscle attached to the heel bone by the famous Achilles tendon. When this muscle contracts, it shortens. He pulls on the tendon. This cord pulls the heel bone and raises. Your whole body is raised: your ankle stretches, you run, you jump, you jump up quick as a flash! It is the same at the knee. When the large muscle of the thigh, the quadriceps contracts, it pulls on the patellar tendon and knee extends.
How damaging a tendon?
You already imagine the mechanical stresses imposed on the cord. All your weight, your acceleration all go through this thin cord. Yet the pull exerted on the tendons can still increase dramatically! When the propulsion muscle pulls in one direction, the bone is going in the same direction. During the reception, the muscle is to control and slow motion. During a sprint or jump, you find the contact with the ground by the toes. To avoid hitting the ground hard with the heel muscle slows your movement. It contracts and pulls the tendon upward. Simultaneously with the momentum, your ankle bends and heel approaches the ground. Bone pulls the tendon down. During braking motion, the cord is violently stretched at each end. The tendon is torn from the bone and muscle. The phenomenon is the same as the knee. At receptions of each stride, the knee bends and quadriceps contracts to absorb and revive the movement. The patellar tendon is stretched in both the tibia and muscle. Under these conditions, the mechanical stresses are enormous! If you overdo the training with sprints and leaps, if you do not allow sufficient recovery, the cord is not slow to anger. Sometimes small filament twine distend or tear. Is tendinitis.
Tendinitis can get worse!
If the stress continues microfibers continue to dilac├ęrer The body tries to heal them. The repair is partial. New filaments surrounding the damaged area but within persist a hole. This is the 'nodule' tendon. In other cases, tearing extends without the body does manage to limit the damage is partial rupture. Finally, on the occasion of a powerful movement, tendon transfers, it tears starting from his point of weakness as crack your pants from a little "hooked" into the fabric. It's a complete break!
How to cure a tendinitis?
Anti-inflammatory drugs soothe the irritation caused by the arrival of the white blood cells responsible for cleaning the lesion. You suffer less.
To allow the healing of sports filaments rest is necessary. When the lesion is small, it is rare to offer a complete cessation of the activity. If the pain disappears in the warm up, it is customary to continue training by reducing the jumps and sprints. It must assay the activity to avoid any increase in pain "cold". If running causes pain cycling is often possible. Pedaling, it no reception occurs, there is no braking contraction. The tendon is only slightly stretched. The stress on the tendon are just sufficient to guide the healing of fibers. They contribute to adapt the tendon in his later mission. Sport below the pain threshold helps you keep fit and look the faster your place in the team.
Rehabilitation is essential. Initially, ice, electrical currents soothe the pain. Where there is a "nodule" the therapist rubbed vigorously. He wants to break the anarchic scar. Gradually he realizes stretching and work again the tendon. Increasing mechanical carefully measured it possible to guide the tendon repair. The fibers are aligned along the axis of traction, the scar suits its function, the tendon prepares to assume his mission! Woe to him who forgets that retraining tendon, he would be sentenced to recidivism. Some Canadian studies seem to show the same interest of a building during an intensive rehabilitation. We must vigorously seek the tendon in his braking function ... even if it hurts! "No pain, no gain" the authors conclude, "no pain, no gain" ... as if your coach told you "no pains, no progress." That's remarks in moderation!
How when the treatment does not work!
If you continue to play despite suffering from tendon injuries worsen. A partial rupture can be. A cast for 3 to 6 weeks should be considered. If a huge "nodule" forms or if pain persists after immobilization, surgery is scheduled. Must clean the wound, remove the "nodule" and lacerated filaments. Often the surgeon comb the tendon. Numerous times, It cuts the tendon in the length, parallel to the fibers. The tendon opens and widens like a fan. Each of the spaces will be filled during convalescence. At the end, the tendon is thicker and more solid. It takes 3 to 6 months of patience and careful rehabilitation to recover a tendon able to assume the constraints of football.
In case of complete rupture of the tendon ...
When the cord is completely torn the operation is inevitable in the top athlete. It is necessary to suture the tendon after removing too ragged filaments. At the knee, the surgeon sometimes makes metal framing around the patellar tendon. By connecting the kneecap to the tibia, it ensures the transmission of mechanical stress instead of the tendon. Thus, it can repair itself peacefully. After surgery, the joint is immobilized to place the tendon relaxed position for 6 to 8 weeks. At the end of the plaster, physiotherapy can start. The metal frame around the patellar tendon is removed after 3 or 4 months. Rehabilitation can intensify. The comeback is only possible 8 to 12 months after surgery.
Remember the weight of the arm and chest!
Physically, playing football is to string together sprints. Look morphology sprinters: the shoulders are broad and imposing busts. Indeed, powerful thigh muscles are supported on the basin. It must be held firmly in place by the abdominals and the muscles along the spine. These muscles are essential to run very fast. They also reduce the risk of suffering the shear basin, the famous "groin". When you run, you run a leg forward and your pelvis rotates. So your path remains in the center, your upper limbs must swing to develop the same energy in reverse. In addition to the sprinters, footballers are in contact. The contraction of the abdominal and back stiffens the bust. The core muscles are essential for winning duels! Strength training should be complete footballer. The upper body should never be forgotten.
Must do "blows" while stretching?
When making "blows" suddenly you stretch your muscle. The nervous system records a sharp movement and asks the muscle to react by contracting. Thus, the body protects the muscles and joints. The muscles do not stretch too hard. Sudden joint movements are controlled by the surrounding muscles. You understand now that to promote the elongation capacity of the muscle, avoid the reflex contraction. When you realize flexibility, avoid "blows". However, during warm-up, it is essential to prepare my body for football. It is useful to wake up your nervous system. Rotate reflexes. Seek protective contractions to the muscles and joints. Before each session, finish your stretching with small "blows". Make large balance forward and to the side: you prepare the better your shots and your lightning sprints.

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA. - 2 f├ęvrier 2011.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


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Iron is essential to your health and performance. It is a central component of hemoglobin. The latter is contained in red blood cells and gives it color. It is the iron that captures oxygen when blood passes through the lungs. It carries the precious gas to muscles. When they arrived, it drops its cargo which then allows the burning of energy substances and muscle contraction.

When you run or when you jump, your heels hit the ground and the fat pad of the foot of the plant is crushed. It is through many blood vessels. These red blood cells burst and release their hemoglobin. Iron is released into the blood and pass into urine.

Muscle contains a twin sister of hemoglobin, myoglobin. The latter also contains a lot of iron which sets some oxygen. This small local reserve allows starting the contraction before the blood vessels do not provide the necessary complement. When you experience aches, your muscle membranes are victims of micro-fissures. Myoglobin and iron leaves the muscle and gaining the blood. The precious metal is eliminated in the urine.

When you make an effort, the majority of blood flow is directed towards your muscles. There remains very little to the digestive tract and the bladder wall. These organs suffer from lack of oxygen and are shaken with every stride. Small areas are damaged and start to bleed. Red blood cells and iron are lost in the feces and in urine.

You enter the assiduous why athletes often lack iron, especially if they do not take care to concoct "menus and recipes" adapted. Sports are even more concerned since all these iron losses are added the massive elimination of blood during menstruation!

That is why it is good to occasionally perform a blood test to assess the stock in body iron. This levy is necessary when it comes to review a state of fatigue. It unnecessary to dose iron in the blood because the body is able to keep within the limits of normal while the reserves are at their lowest! It is necessary to measure levels of "serum ferritin" because this structure is the storage form of iron.

The bone is strengthened or crack in contact sports

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA.

Each sports movement constitutes a solicitation for the bone structure. At each reception process, the tibia runner undergoes vibratory impacts. Unrolling not, the hiker twists slightly small bone in his foot. Even the body-builders, powerfully contracting its muscles, pulls on his bone.

Each strain injures a little bone of sports. Fortunately, during the rest period, the bone trying to rebuild. If time allows, if they bring him the necessary food, it is repaired! It reconstructs even louder than before as if to prepare for new mechanical attacks. This phenomenon is called by coaches cycle decompensation / overcompensation. This process has been described in many body organs and functions: muscle, stock energy, hormones, etc. It is a key driver of growth.

Thus, it was shown that the well-trained marathoner had stronger bones than sedentary. Indeed, its more dense bone structure, higher in fiber and calcium. In addition, the microscopic architecture of the bone is perfectly oriented along the axis of mechanical stresses.

Indeed, the chemical structure of the bone is comparable to reinforced concrete. The protein network is the steel rods. Calcium is comparable to concrete mired these metal axes. At the hip and pelvis direction of the bone structure is very characteristic. On a radiograph, it is found that the fibers leave the femur, the thigh bone, tilt in, come from hip to withstand the weight of the body resting on the hips. The lines of force from the right leg and left leg meet in the middle of the basin and support each other in the manner of the nave of a church.

Physical activity associated with a sufficiently high protein diet, vitamin D and calcium is a great engine of bone construction. This cocktail is particularly useful to hinge periods of life. During growth, it is necessary to eat 4-5 dairy products every day to build strong bones. It should also move: it is essential to practice a sport requiring the running and jumping at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. In the absence of impact, bones harden less. It has been shown that a young competitive swimmer had lower bone density than sedentary because he was deprived of gravity during those long hours of pool training. In addition, bone densification stops 25 years. At this age you have made up your bone capital for life!

In adulthood, sport reinforces very hard bone and the amount of calcium necessary for the maintenance of bone is still debated. In case of fracture, the rest of the broken area needed a few weeks to allow to "ensnare" the broken area. In addition, gradually increasing mechanical stress are indispensable to "mechanize" the callus. Again, they help to guide the fabric of the bone in the center of the constraints to prepare him for his mission. An increase in calcium intake in consolidation period is proposed by some doctors without that interest has been really shown.

After menopause, the bone structure is gradually degraded to make the brittle bones is osteoporosis. Ladies, remember, your resistance to hip fracture depends on your diet and your sport for 25 years! If physical activity after menopause can no longer denser bones, reduces the loss of bone tissue. So it is advisable to go see jumping around or jog. It is also good to make the soft gym to maintain bone strength to strength. To make the most of this stimulation, it is again necessary to take 4-5 dairy products daily. It should also go out every day to enjoy the sun and make the vitamin D essential for the absorption and calcium binding. Fresh coordinating sports such as Thai Chi or "balance workshops" have proven effective in reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

If the sporting activity is excessive, the micro-cracks caused by impacts on the bones fail to consolidate over the rest. Rather, these lesions worsen in the next workout. Finally the splits right through bone, it breaks without any violent trauma. It is the stress fracture. In a postmenopausal woman, it was demonstrated that 6 hours of sport load per week may be sufficient to break insidiously bones. Among younger adults, this type of injury is favored by dietary deficiencies and hormonal disorders. Lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein alters the rebuild bone victim of microcracks in the exercise. Insufficiency sex hormones reduces the stimulation microscopic chemical plants be responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue. Functional changes occur when the deep depletion of the body. That kind of burnout is most often diagnosed in women because it causes menstrual irregularities and a cessation of menses. The victim is found in a state of "early menopause". In humans this hormone suffering is more insidious but it exists and its effects on bone density are comparable. The sports overwork cocktail, dietary deficiencies and disappearance of rules typically found in young women anorexic. Faced with a stress fracture, the sports physician must remain vigilant. It should not simply treat a "bone". It has an obligation to support a whole person, he is responsible for seeking overtraining or behavioral disorders.

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