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Sport, osteoarthritis and prosthesis

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Introduction

Playing a sport you work your joints. These solicitations will they promote wear or otherwise maintenance of cartilage? If you have a prosthetic hip or knee, can you now take the sport you love or, conversely, should you be careful?

Osteoarthritis, what is it?

Osteoarthritis is the wearing away of cartilage. This precious substance covers the bones in joints. Its exceptional mechanical properties allow it to withstand large compression and shear forces while ensuring the smooth rolling and sliding bone pieces.

However, when the constraints on cartilage exceed its capacity, it insidiously erodes. Unlike bone, it does not heal. Rather, studies show it would take 400 years for it to reconstruct!

To reduce the risk of osteoarthritis and its accompanying pain, stiffness and physical disabilities, avoid certain dangerous sports practices for cartilage. Others, however, prove safe or even beneficial to prevent osteoarthritis or participate in treatment.

The movement is essential to life cartilage

The cartilage is not not passed through the blood vessels. Physical activity causes pressure variations in the tissue and for pumping food from vessels passing into the underlying bone. Conversely, experiments have demonstrated the damaging effects of lack of movement. If an animal is immobilized in a position, the point of contact between the two articular surfaces crashed and cartilage eventually die!

A viscous substance lubricates the cartilage is the synovium. With this natural oil, the rapid movement of bone pieces polishes cartilage maintenance and texture. Rather, a slow and supported friction fighter planes and synovial articular surface. The bike illustrates this phenomenon. To preserve his knee is better "grind" than "crush large gear ratio."

The deeper layers of cartilage are stiffened by perpendicular fiber surface. The pressure guide construction and increases its strength. In contrast, shear stresses can disrupt its structure. In practice sports with many obstacles and directions of change can be harmful to the joints. Conversely, physical activities in a straight line, cycling and even distance running show is usually beneficial.

The movement helps the proper functioning of the joint.

You understood, the right amount of physical activity is beneficial shows the texture of cartilage. But sport maintenance also the function of the joint. Stronger muscles, more flexible, more enduring and coordinated ensure a smoother movement of the joints. The bone pieces do not knock. The pressure on the cartilage are better distributed. This precious fabric is used much less. A varied workout, diverse, well chosen and adapted to your health behaves like a true rehabilitation ... fun too!

Sometimes sport cartilage wears!

Studies show that, in certain circumstances, sport promotes osteoarthritis. This is the case of intensive practices with changes in direction. Marathon runners and high-level cyclists do not have more osteoarthritis than sedentary. Gestures too large amplitudes cause erosion of cartilage. The ball striking promotes wear hip footballer. The hypersouplesse natural dancer abyss joints. After a sprain, the relaxation of the ligaments is responsible for micromovements anarchic bone parts that degrade cartilage. Sport increases the risk of osteoarthritis in the event of localized pressure. This is what happens when he misses a meniscus fragment or when the weight distribution is disturbed by shaped legs parentheses () or X.

Sport promotes osteoarthritis

If you practice a discipline intensively with management changes.
If you have any sequelae of sprains or meniscal tears.
If your flexibility is excessive (hypermobility).
If your joints are abnormally shaped
If you are very overweight

Promoting sports osteoarthritis

Football, rugby.
The basketball, handball.
Tennis, squash.
Volleyball, badminton.
Combat sports
trekking

Sport fight against osteoarthritis

If practiced in moderation and in a diversified manner.
If done without changing direction.
If done without support body weight in obesity.
If each of trauma is well cared for.

Sports fighting against osteoarthritis

Swimming, water aerobics.
Cycling, rowing
Walking
The cardio on devices (except the race on carpet)
The maintenance gymnastics and flexibility.
Strength training good conduct.

Prostheses, it is also to take over the sport!

Your osteoarthritis of the knee or hip becomes painful and embarrassing in everyday life and especially during your sport. The medication, injections, injections of viscous and physical therapy are not enough to relieve you. You decide to ask you a particular prosthesis to resume physical activities to your heart! It's just a motivation because in many cases, you can resume the sport!

Walking, swimming, water aerobics, cardio indoors, road cycling and golf are not only allowed but also recommended. They maintain the strength, flexibility and coordination of the muscles around the joint made. Some activities with risk of falling can be reversed if you know the technique well and if you stay cautious. This is the case of skiing, horseback riding and mountain biking.

Tennis requires quick races and abrupt changes of direction. That promotes wear of the prosthesis. It is therefore to advise use of playing doubles to limit joint stress. In practice, it is often possible to pursue a reasonable practice simple.

However, other disciplines are strongly discouraged. If a small occasional jogging or hiking on flat terrain is often possible, distance running and trekking are cons-indicated. The receipt of each stride and downhill on uneven ground are responsible for aggressive impact on the prosthesis. Football, rugby, handball, basketball are contact sports and pivots. Trauma and joint friction combine to destabilize and use the prosthesis. These disciplines will also be abandoned.

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA. - 9 f├ęvrier 2011.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.

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