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A sprain is a traumatic affection of one or more ligaments. This traumatic injury can be a simple stretching of the ligament (mild sprain), a partial tear of some ligament fibers (moderately severe sprain), or total rupture of the ligament (severe sprain).
Ligaments are structures constituting tensioned stay cables on either side of a joint. They allow the articular surfaces to remain in contact during the movements and thus ensure the stabilization of the joint.
After trauma, the joint may undergo excessive torque resulting ligament injury.
There are two primary ligaments at the ankle, a lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and a medial collateral ligament (MCL) on each side of the ankle, they are stretched between the tibia / fibula top and the talus / calcaneus below. The LLE is composed of three bundles (anterior, middle and posterior).
An external ankle sprain is an injury to the LLE. When certain sports such as football or tennis, trauma torsional and / or inversion of the foot will lead to ligament injuries. In most cases, the sprain is partial and it is a mild sprain of the lateral collateral ligament (anterior bundle).
However before this type of accident should always be considered a complete rupture of the three beams of the LLE which requires specific therapeutic management. For the achievement of 3 beams of LLE defines a severe ankle sprain.
In the immediate aftermath of a sprained must stop all activities, apply ice if possible, set up a simple bandage or splint. It is necessary to consult in an emergency service in case of severe discomfort, to eliminate a serious pathology (fracture, dislocation ...) In any case, it is advisable to consult your doctor in the days following the accident .
Medical treatment consists of immobilization in an ankle brace of variable length depending on the damage, analgesics and anti-inflammatory daily icing the ankle to reduce pain and hematoma, rehabilitation through physiotherapy to start quickly to prevent joint stiffness and muscle atrophy. The judgment of the sport depends on the severity of the injury.
Except in exceptional cases, there is no indication to operate an ankle sprain. In severe sprain with lesion of 3 beams of LLE, surgical intervention may be necessary.
Partial ACL tear
Isolated ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most frequent ligament of the knee. These breaks may be complete or partial. In partial tears, clinical diagnosis is more difficult because the clinical presentation is variable. The diagnosis, evolution in time and treatment its partial tears are still subject to much controversy. The purpose of this article is to clarify the definitions, clinical diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to these partial ACL tears. (read more ...)
Women have four to eight times more likely than men to have a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This risk seems more important during the pre-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle than during the post-ovulatory phase. The main objective of the study was to describe the distribution of ACL injuries during the menstrual cycle in a large recreational skiers population.
The main goal of this study Was to compare the results of the GNRB arthrometer To Those of Telos TM in the diagnosis of partial thickness tears of the anterior cru- ciate ligament (ACL). A prospective study Performed January- December 2011 included all patients presenting with a partial or full-thickness tears ACL without ACL recon- struction and with a healthy contralateral knee. Anterior laxity Was Measured in all patients by the Telos TM and GNRB├ĺ devices.
It is necessary to distinguish:
- The fracture lesions which are always found with certainty notion traumatic (new or old)
- Chronic lesions with onset of osteonecrosis subchondral more or less extensive, described in the literature under different terminologies (osteochondrosis, osteochondritis, osteonecrosis).
This distinction seems to us essential because etiology, radiographic appearance, treatment and prognosis of such lesions are sometimes totally different.