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Tendinitis and tendon ruptures.

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As you repeat sprints and jumps, you experience pain just below the calf or at the front of the knee. This is perhaps tendinitis! You're not the only, the greatest footballers are sometimes victims ...
Tendon, what is it?
The tendon is the cord connecting the muscle to the bone. It consists of a multitude of small fiber exactly like a string is formed by several filaments. The tendon is responsible for transmitting the force of the muscle to the joint and cause movement. The calf muscle attached to the heel bone by the famous Achilles tendon. When this muscle contracts, it shortens. He pulls on the tendon. This cord pulls the heel bone and raises. Your whole body is raised: your ankle stretches, you run, you jump, you jump up quick as a flash! It is the same at the knee. When the large muscle of the thigh, the quadriceps contracts, it pulls on the patellar tendon and knee extends.
How damaging a tendon?
You already imagine the mechanical stresses imposed on the cord. All your weight, your acceleration all go through this thin cord. Yet the pull exerted on the tendons can still increase dramatically! When the propulsion muscle pulls in one direction, the bone is going in the same direction. During the reception, the muscle is to control and slow motion. During a sprint or jump, you find the contact with the ground by the toes. To avoid hitting the ground hard with the heel muscle slows your movement. It contracts and pulls the tendon upward. Simultaneously with the momentum, your ankle bends and heel approaches the ground. Bone pulls the tendon down. During braking motion, the cord is violently stretched at each end. The tendon is torn from the bone and muscle. The phenomenon is the same as the knee. At receptions of each stride, the knee bends and quadriceps contracts to absorb and revive the movement. The patellar tendon is stretched in both the tibia and muscle. Under these conditions, the mechanical stresses are enormous! If you overdo the training with sprints and leaps, if you do not allow sufficient recovery, the cord is not slow to anger. Sometimes small filament twine distend or tear. Is tendinitis.
Tendinitis can get worse!
If the stress continues microfibers continue to dilac├ęrer The body tries to heal them. The repair is partial. New filaments surrounding the damaged area but within persist a hole. This is the 'nodule' tendon. In other cases, tearing extends without the body does manage to limit the damage is partial rupture. Finally, on the occasion of a powerful movement, tendon transfers, it tears starting from his point of weakness as crack your pants from a little "hooked" into the fabric. It's a complete break!
How to cure a tendinitis?
Anti-inflammatory drugs soothe the irritation caused by the arrival of the white blood cells responsible for cleaning the lesion. You suffer less.
To allow the healing of sports filaments rest is necessary. When the lesion is small, it is rare to offer a complete cessation of the activity. If the pain disappears in the warm up, it is customary to continue training by reducing the jumps and sprints. It must assay the activity to avoid any increase in pain "cold". If running causes pain cycling is often possible. Pedaling, it no reception occurs, there is no braking contraction. The tendon is only slightly stretched. The stress on the tendon are just sufficient to guide the healing of fibers. They contribute to adapt the tendon in his later mission. Sport below the pain threshold helps you keep fit and look the faster your place in the team.
Rehabilitation is essential. Initially, ice, electrical currents soothe the pain. Where there is a "nodule" the therapist rubbed vigorously. He wants to break the anarchic scar. Gradually he realizes stretching and work again the tendon. Increasing mechanical carefully measured it possible to guide the tendon repair. The fibers are aligned along the axis of traction, the scar suits its function, the tendon prepares to assume his mission! Woe to him who forgets that retraining tendon, he would be sentenced to recidivism. Some Canadian studies seem to show the same interest of a building during an intensive rehabilitation. We must vigorously seek the tendon in his braking function ... even if it hurts! "No pain, no gain" the authors conclude, "no pain, no gain" ... as if your coach told you "no pains, no progress." That's remarks in moderation!
How when the treatment does not work!
If you continue to play despite suffering from tendon injuries worsen. A partial rupture can be. A cast for 3 to 6 weeks should be considered. If a huge "nodule" forms or if pain persists after immobilization, surgery is scheduled. Must clean the wound, remove the "nodule" and lacerated filaments. Often the surgeon comb the tendon. Numerous times, It cuts the tendon in the length, parallel to the fibers. The tendon opens and widens like a fan. Each of the spaces will be filled during convalescence. At the end, the tendon is thicker and more solid. It takes 3 to 6 months of patience and careful rehabilitation to recover a tendon able to assume the constraints of football.
In case of complete rupture of the tendon ...
When the cord is completely torn the operation is inevitable in the top athlete. It is necessary to suture the tendon after removing too ragged filaments. At the knee, the surgeon sometimes makes metal framing around the patellar tendon. By connecting the kneecap to the tibia, it ensures the transmission of mechanical stress instead of the tendon. Thus, it can repair itself peacefully. After surgery, the joint is immobilized to place the tendon relaxed position for 6 to 8 weeks. At the end of the plaster, physiotherapy can start. The metal frame around the patellar tendon is removed after 3 or 4 months. Rehabilitation can intensify. The comeback is only possible 8 to 12 months after surgery.
Remember the weight of the arm and chest!
Physically, playing football is to string together sprints. Look morphology sprinters: the shoulders are broad and imposing busts. Indeed, powerful thigh muscles are supported on the basin. It must be held firmly in place by the abdominals and the muscles along the spine. These muscles are essential to run very fast. They also reduce the risk of suffering the shear basin, the famous "groin". When you run, you run a leg forward and your pelvis rotates. So your path remains in the center, your upper limbs must swing to develop the same energy in reverse. In addition to the sprinters, footballers are in contact. The contraction of the abdominal and back stiffens the bust. The core muscles are essential for winning duels! Strength training should be complete footballer. The upper body should never be forgotten.
Must do "blows" while stretching?
When making "blows" suddenly you stretch your muscle. The nervous system records a sharp movement and asks the muscle to react by contracting. Thus, the body protects the muscles and joints. The muscles do not stretch too hard. Sudden joint movements are controlled by the surrounding muscles. You understand now that to promote the elongation capacity of the muscle, avoid the reflex contraction. When you realize flexibility, avoid "blows". However, during warm-up, it is essential to prepare my body for football. It is useful to wake up your nervous system. Rotate reflexes. Seek protective contractions to the muscles and joints. Before each session, finish your stretching with small "blows". Make large balance forward and to the side: you prepare the better your shots and your lightning sprints.

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA. - 2 f├ęvrier 2011.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


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