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late season failure: recovery or regression?

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When the body stops to train, it regenerates! Unfortunately, it also loses its achievements. So what to do during the offseason? A short break for internationals does reveal enough?
Between league and Confederations Cup players of the team of France will benefit from about 2 to 15 days to recharge. She can Scientific studies tell us if this time is appropriate? Are these research that can guide them in their physical activity during the holidays?
Stop, it's regress!
The endurance, so useful to take 90 minutes, decrease quickly when idle. After 3 weeks of complete rest, the displacement of the engine or muscular V02 max decreased by almost 30%. Muscle sugar tank and decrease the energy available in the same proportions. The force remains fairly stable but the power drops rapidly. Clearly, the trigger is retained but the ability to extend or repeat sprints is reduced. Flexibility is quickly altered in the absence of stretching. In theory, the technical qualities persist. It is customary to say that the rudimentary motor patterns are stored long: you know cycling and swimming forever ... However, psychomotor reactions elaborate and collective perception of the game are so complex that they fade in some days.
Stop, this is progress!
After 5 to 10 days of complete rest, physical abilities are little changed. After 15 days of training reduction, studies show that performance improves dramatically! In disciplines where the competition are infrequent, marathon or triathlon, this relative recovery period always precedes great maturity. During these two weeks, the muscles are repaired, they manufacture new fibers, increasing their stocks of sugar and increasing the chemical structures for the burning of reserves. The glands accumulate again hormones used to build and energize the body. The brain replenished substances whose mission is to transmit information from neuron to neuron. Psychologically, that probably helps evacuate saturation!
In practice, what advice for the offseason?
A 15-day truce, like that of our international, seems well suited. Most extended outages may be responsible for a marked change in performance. During this period, complete rest is optional and should not exceed one week. Following the resumption of sport is essential. In moderation, physical activity does not tire a body accustomed to heavy training loads. Instead, it stimulates the regeneration of many mechanisms. It is especially important that maintain the physical skills regress rapidly, particularly endurance. The intensity cardiovascular work should be privileged over time. It is advisable to program 3 jogging per week for about 45 minutes, including 20 minutes, "the limit of breath." On the course, some ribs and direction changes are welcome. A little ball control and some juggling can quietly return to office. Finally, a comprehensive series of stretches concluded the session. Later, lying on his recliner, footballer can work its coordination and perception of the game through the "visualization". In this regime, the diligent practitioner quickly suffer from competition deficiency ... he will find the desire to play and win!
______________________________________________________________________
INJURY IS ALSO A BREAK
Fatigue promotes injury. Late in the season, after a trauma, a few days of complete rest are often welcome. Quickly, swimming, cycling or are beneficial cardio. A well proportioned solicitation guide the healing of the injured tissue. Working in endurance helps to limit stress on the injured area and allows maintenance of a physical quality that could decline quickly.
______________________________________________________________________
BEST regress FASTER
When doctors plaster leg of an athlete, they found that his muscles melting much faster than those of a sedentary. Studies show that an athlete sharpened quickly loses its physical qualities when it stops. Not surprising since many of his skills are learned in training. top-level footballers do not have the right to plenty of rest!

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA. - 9 février 2011.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.

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The Iroman lack of iron, the other sports too!

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA.

Iron is essential to your health and performance. It is a central component of hemoglobin. The latter is contained in red blood cells and gives it color. It is the iron that captures oxygen when blood passes through the lungs. It carries the precious gas to muscles. When they arrived, it drops its cargo which then allows the burning of energy substances and muscle contraction.

When you run or when you jump, your heels hit the ground and the fat pad of the foot of the plant is crushed. It is through many blood vessels. These red blood cells burst and release their hemoglobin. Iron is released into the blood and pass into urine.

Muscle contains a twin sister of hemoglobin, myoglobin. The latter also contains a lot of iron which sets some oxygen. This small local reserve allows starting the contraction before the blood vessels do not provide the necessary complement. When you experience aches, your muscle membranes are victims of micro-fissures. Myoglobin and iron leaves the muscle and gaining the blood. The precious metal is eliminated in the urine.

When you make an effort, the majority of blood flow is directed towards your muscles. There remains very little to the digestive tract and the bladder wall. These organs suffer from lack of oxygen and are shaken with every stride. Small areas are damaged and start to bleed. Red blood cells and iron are lost in the feces and in urine.

You enter the assiduous why athletes often lack iron, especially if they do not take care to concoct "menus and recipes" adapted. Sports are even more concerned since all these iron losses are added the massive elimination of blood during menstruation!

That is why it is good to occasionally perform a blood test to assess the stock in body iron. This levy is necessary when it comes to review a state of fatigue. It unnecessary to dose iron in the blood because the body is able to keep within the limits of normal while the reserves are at their lowest! It is necessary to measure levels of "serum ferritin" because this structure is the storage form of iron.

The bone is strengthened or crack in contact sports

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA.

Each sports movement constitutes a solicitation for the bone structure. At each reception process, the tibia runner undergoes vibratory impacts. Unrolling not, the hiker twists slightly small bone in his foot. Even the body-builders, powerfully contracting its muscles, pulls on his bone.

Each strain injures a little bone of sports. Fortunately, during the rest period, the bone trying to rebuild. If time allows, if they bring him the necessary food, it is repaired! It reconstructs even louder than before as if to prepare for new mechanical attacks. This phenomenon is called by coaches cycle decompensation / overcompensation. This process has been described in many body organs and functions: muscle, stock energy, hormones, etc. It is a key driver of growth.

Thus, it was shown that the well-trained marathoner had stronger bones than sedentary. Indeed, its more dense bone structure, higher in fiber and calcium. In addition, the microscopic architecture of the bone is perfectly oriented along the axis of mechanical stresses.

Indeed, the chemical structure of the bone is comparable to reinforced concrete. The protein network is the steel rods. Calcium is comparable to concrete mired these metal axes. At the hip and pelvis direction of the bone structure is very characteristic. On a radiograph, it is found that the fibers leave the femur, the thigh bone, tilt in, come from hip to withstand the weight of the body resting on the hips. The lines of force from the right leg and left leg meet in the middle of the basin and support each other in the manner of the nave of a church.

Physical activity associated with a sufficiently high protein diet, vitamin D and calcium is a great engine of bone construction. This cocktail is particularly useful to hinge periods of life. During growth, it is necessary to eat 4-5 dairy products every day to build strong bones. It should also move: it is essential to practice a sport requiring the running and jumping at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. In the absence of impact, bones harden less. It has been shown that a young competitive swimmer had lower bone density than sedentary because he was deprived of gravity during those long hours of pool training. In addition, bone densification stops 25 years. At this age you have made up your bone capital for life!

In adulthood, sport reinforces very hard bone and the amount of calcium necessary for the maintenance of bone is still debated. In case of fracture, the rest of the broken area needed a few weeks to allow to "ensnare" the broken area. In addition, gradually increasing mechanical stress are indispensable to "mechanize" the callus. Again, they help to guide the fabric of the bone in the center of the constraints to prepare him for his mission. An increase in calcium intake in consolidation period is proposed by some doctors without that interest has been really shown.

After menopause, the bone structure is gradually degraded to make the brittle bones is osteoporosis. Ladies, remember, your resistance to hip fracture depends on your diet and your sport for 25 years! If physical activity after menopause can no longer denser bones, reduces the loss of bone tissue. So it is advisable to go see jumping around or jog. It is also good to make the soft gym to maintain bone strength to strength. To make the most of this stimulation, it is again necessary to take 4-5 dairy products daily. It should also go out every day to enjoy the sun and make the vitamin D essential for the absorption and calcium binding. Fresh coordinating sports such as Thai Chi or "balance workshops" have proven effective in reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

If the sporting activity is excessive, the micro-cracks caused by impacts on the bones fail to consolidate over the rest. Rather, these lesions worsen in the next workout. Finally the splits right through bone, it breaks without any violent trauma. It is the stress fracture. In a postmenopausal woman, it was demonstrated that 6 hours of sport load per week may be sufficient to break insidiously bones. Among younger adults, this type of injury is favored by dietary deficiencies and hormonal disorders. Lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein alters the rebuild bone victim of microcracks in the exercise. Insufficiency sex hormones reduces the stimulation microscopic chemical plants be responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue. Functional changes occur when the deep depletion of the body. That kind of burnout is most often diagnosed in women because it causes menstrual irregularities and a cessation of menses. The victim is found in a state of "early menopause". In humans this hormone suffering is more insidious but it exists and its effects on bone density are comparable. The sports overwork cocktail, dietary deficiencies and disappearance of rules typically found in young women anorexic. Faced with a stress fracture, the sports physician must remain vigilant. It should not simply treat a "bone". It has an obligation to support a whole person, he is responsible for seeking overtraining or behavioral disorders.



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